19th Century Technology


Technology Development during the 19th Century


In 1947, the world’s maiden transistor was invented. The transistor is the building block for everything digital in our age. One of the world’s first digital computers, the ENIAC was introduced in that particular year until 1955. In 1948, another breakthrough was made as the world’s first RAM or known as Random Access Storage Device during that time by Freddie William and his team in Computer England. In 1951, the world’s first commercially available computer the Ferranti Mark 1 was introduced. After the demonstration of the transistor radio by Bell Labs in 1948, the first pocket transistor radio by Texas Instruments was introduced to the market in 1954 at a price of 49.95 USD, in today’s market the value would skyrocket to 370 USD. 1956 was another year of breakthrough for the computer world as IBM unveiled its IBM 305 a production hard disk storing 5 megabytes. The microchip was invented in 1958 by Jack Kilby of Texas Instruments and Robert Noyce of Fairchild Semiconductor. In 1959, the first 1401 Data Processing System consisting of solid-state devices including transistors and the new generation of IBM Hard Discs was shipped by IBM. In 1963, the first computer mouse prototype was invented by Douglas Engelbart and Bill English. However, the public only gained an idea of using it after 20 years when it was unveiled in the Apple Macintosh. In 1964, BASIC (Beginners' All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code), an easy-to-learn high level programming language is introduced. Then, IBM introduced the basic computer design in the System/360. Further in the year 1964, Sony dished out the first VCR Home Video Recorder. Sony then unleashed the BETAMAX video recorder the next year. In 1969, the predecessor of the Internet, the ARPANET is unveiled. Not long after that, a group of AT & T employees mustered the operating system UNIX at Bell Labs. 1971, the first microprocessor from Intel was released, the 4004. Then, the pocket calculator was then invented by Texas Instruments. Later, the first 8” Floppy Disk Drives were introduced. In 1972, the first scientific calculator, the HP-35 was introduced at a price of 395 USD. In 1974, UPC or Universal product Code BAR CODE UPC scanner ( 1952 for first bar code use but not UPC ) or the standard used today was first used. The next year, the game-changer of game-changers, Microsoft was launched. Then, Steven Sasson created the world’s first digital camera at Kodak. Another great was formed in 1976 when Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak founded Apple. Later that year, inkjet technology was invented. The first Apple II computers went on sale the next year. In 1978, the craze for computer games was launched with the release of Space Invaders. Then Bell Labs tested a commercial cellular network. The next year, the world’s first portable music bank was unveiled by Sony which they named the device the Sony Walkman. It retailed at a price of 200 USD. Digital Equipment Corporation, Intel and Xerox introduces the DIX standard for Ethernet in 1980. In 1981, Microsoft first launched its MS-DOS operating system, the system was used in the IBM PC later that year. The term Internet originated from that year. In 1982, The Computer was named Times Person of The Year. Quite a feat for a machine huh? In 1983, ARPANET officially changes to use the Internet Protocol, creating the Internet. Lotus 1-2-3 is released. IBM releases the IBM PC XT. Microsoft Word is first released. Swatch introduces their first watches. The first hand held mobile phone by Motorola becomes commercially available worldwide. All those happened in 1983. In 1984, the first Apple Macintosh goes on sale, then, the first 3 1/2'” disks were introduced by Sony. In 1985, the first .com domain name, symbolics.com, is registered by Symbolics Corp. However, .edu domains, for educational institutions or purposes, still predominate over the commercial .com ones. Then, the first Windows OS, Windows 1.0 was released by Microsoft later that year. In 1986, IBM unveils the PC Convertible, the world’s first laptop. In 1988, virus starts to infects computers connected to the Internet. In 1991 the World Wide Web was released to the public, by 1996, the Internet was in the mainstream consciousness and many businesses listed websites in their ads. By 1999, almost every country had an internet connection, and more than 50% of the Americans used the Internet on a regular basis. In 1989, 15% of households in the United States owned computers, by 2000, this was up to 51%. In the year 1999, the Y2K problem or the millennium bug was the most important thing on most companies’ minds in 1999. Critical industries (such as electricity or financial) and government functions could stop working at 12:00 AM, January 1, 2000. This fear was fuelled by the press coverage and other media speculation, as well as corporate and government reports. All over the world companies and organizations checked and upgraded their computer systems. However come 2000, only a few minor glitches were reported. Cell phones became a common sight in western countries, with movie theatres beginning to show ads telling people to silence their phones. After revolutionizing society in the developed world in the 1990s, the digital revolution spread to the rest in the developing world in the 2000s. In late 2005 the population of the Internet reached 1 billion people, and 3 billion people worldwide used cell phones by the end of the decade. Currently, television is transitioning from the analog to digital signal. The link between mobile devices and internet websites via "social networking" have become a standard in digital communication. By 2010, 2 billion people used the Internet, twice the number using it in 2005. Cloud computing has entered the mainstream in the early 2010s. By 2015, tablet computers and phones are expected to exceed personal computers in Internet usage.

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